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Basic Knowledge of Copper

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Basic Knowledge of Copper

Release date:2019-09-23 15:43 source:Original click:

  Basic Knowledge of Copper

  I. Natural Attributes

  Copper is one of the earliest ancient metals discovered by human beings. It was used more than 3,000 years ago.

  Copper, element symbol copper, atomic weight 63.54, specific gravity 8.92, melting point 1083 C. Pure copper is light rose or reddish, and copper oxide film is formed on the surface, and its appearance is copper. Copper has many valuable physical and chemical properties, such as high thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, strong chemical stability, high tensile strength, easy welding, corrosion resistance, plasticity and ductility. Pure copper can be drawn into very thin copper wire and made into very thin copper foil. It can form alloys with zinc, tin, lead, manganese, cobalt, nickel, aluminium, iron and other metals.

  The development of copper smelting technology has gone through a long process, but up to now, pyrometallurgy is still the main method of copper smelting, and its output accounts for about 85% of the world's total copper output.

  1) Pyrotechnical smelting generally starts with the raw ore containing several percent or a few thousandths of copper, which is raised to 21.30% by beneficiation. As a copper concentrate, the combing smelting is carried out in a closed blast furnace, a reverberatory furnace, an electric furnace or a flash furnace. The melting comb (matte) produced is then fed into a converter for smelting into crude copper, and then in another reverberatory furnace. The electrolytic copper with 99.9% grade can be obtained by oxidation refining or electrolysis of cast anode plate. The process is simple and adaptable, and the copper recovery rate can reach 95%. However, because the sulfur in ore is discharged as sulfur dioxide exhaust gas in milling and blowing stages, it is not easy to recover and cause pollution. In recent years, such as silver smelting, Nolanda smelting and Mitsubishi smelting in Japan, pyrometallurgy gradually develops to continuous and automatic.

  2) Modern hydrometallurgy includes sulphurization roasting - > leaching - > electrowinning, leaching - > extraction - > electrowinning, bacterial leaching and so on. It is suitable for heap leaching, tank leaching or in-situ leaching of low-grade complex ore, copper oxide ore and copper-bearing waste ore. Wet smelting technology is gradually being promoted, and it is expected to reach 20% of the total output by the end of this century. The introduction of wet smelting will greatly reduce the cost of copper smelting.

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