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Xinxiang Haishan Machinery Popularizes the Classification of

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Xinxiang Haishan Machinery Popularizes the Classification of

Release date:2019-09-23 13:51 source:Original click:

 Mankind has found 103 natural elements in nature. All natural elements with outstanding conductivity, heat conductivity and calcinability are called metals, such as iron, copper, aluminium, titanium, magnesium, etc. Metals are generally divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals contain iron, chromium, manganese and their alloys. 83 metals (including 13 artificial transuranium elements) except iron, chromium and manganese are called non-ferrous metals.

  For the convenience of discussion, the non-ferrous metals can be divided into five categories according to their properties, ore properties, uses and usage time.

  I. Light Non-ferrous Metals

  It contains 7 kinds of aluminum (Al), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and barium (Ba). These metals are characterized by low density (0.53-4.5), high chemical activity and proper stability with compounds of oxygen, sulfur, carbon and halogen.

  II. Heavy Nonferrous Metals

  It contains 10 kinds of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), cadmium (Cd), bismuth (Bi). Its characteristics are high density, such as lead 11.34. According to its characteristics, each heavy non-ferrous metal has its special use scale and use in all sectors of the national economy. For example, copper is the basic information of military and electrical equipment; lead is widely used in chemical industry to make acid-resistant pipelines, storage batteries and so on; galvanized steel is widely used in industry and sunshine; and nickel and cobalt are important alloying elements for the formulation of superalloys and stainless steels.

  III. Precious Metals

  Gold (Au), silver (Ag) and platinum group elements [platinum (Pt), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (lr), ruthenium (Ru)] are called precious metals. Because of its stability to oxygen and other reagents, and its low content in the crust, it is difficult to excavate and extract these metals, so the price of these metals is more precious than that of other metals. In addition to gold, silver and platinum, which have their own mineral deposits, most of these metals can be recovered from the by-products (anode slime) of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and other exercise factories. They are characterized by high density (10.4-22.4), in which platinum, iridium and osmium are the heaviest metals in metal elements. It has high melting point (916-3000 C), stable chemical properties and can resist acid-base corrosion. In addition, gold and silver have high calcinability and plasticity, palladium and platinum also have outstanding plasticity, the other are brittle metals. Gold and silver have excellent conductivity and thermal conductivity, but platinum group elements are very low. Precious metals are widely used in electrical, electronic industry, space technology, high temperature appearance and touch agents.

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